Indian Cities Gear Up To Tackle Sewerage Issues
Pollution of surface waters has risen to dangerous levels and the major contributing factor is the disposal of untreated sewage and wastewater into the water bodies. According to a recent United Nations (UN) report, half of all river stretches in Asia are affected by pathogen pollution owing to untreated sewage, thus posing serious threats for millions of people. The report also stated that around 3.4 million deaths are recorded every year due to water-borne diseases.
Extent of pollution
In India, around 62,000 million litres of sewage is generated every day, most of which goes untreated into rivers, lakes and ponds. This directly affects groundwater quality making it high in nitrate levels. Close to 80 per cent of the country's population depends on groundwater for drinking, cooking and bathing. As per studies by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), there are approximately 522 operational sewage treatment plants (STPs) in India and about 39 per cent of the STPs do not adhere to the prescribed environmental standards for discharge into streams. Studies also suggest that the projected wastewater from urban centres may cross 120,000 MLD by 2051.
The solution, therefore, lies in the creation of more facilities for treatment of sewage and wastewater. Moreover, technology can play a vital role in the treatment of wastewater. The government is thus striving to reduce the wide gap of massive sewage generation and its subsequent treatment procedures. This will be done by making it mandatory for municipal authorities to set STPs in their concerned area.
Another dimension to the increasing need for Sewage and Wastewater Management is the rising water scarcity issues which stresses on the need for reusable water.
MakaaniQ brings you updates from some cities on initiatives by the government for effective sewage management.
The city will soon have a wastewater treatment plant which will recycle 45 million litres of domestic water for industry usage will be built by 2018. The 594-crore project will possess ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis technology to treat secondary domestic waste water to provide a consistent quality of water to various industries.
The state government asked the Pune Municipal Corporation to make suitable changes in the development control rules for making mandatory provisions for waste processing plants in new residential projects in the city.
The authorities received directives from the National Green Tribunal to ensure closure of around 76 polluting industries in the city near Bengaluru's Bellandur Lake. NGT also directed that residential complexes near the lake must have STPs installed in their communities. The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) made it compulsory for residential communities with over 50 units to have STPs and dual-piping system.
The national capital will soon get a contemporary sewage treatment plant which will be the biggest in India. An STP is proposed to be set up in north Delhi's Burari with a capacity of 378 Million Litres Per Day (MLD). The city is set to receive its first sewage treatment plant which has the capacity to generate power. The recently installed STP has a capacity of 60 million litres per day (MLD) and generates one megawatt by means of a biogas engine. The residue of the treated sewage will be utilised for power generation. The project, built with the support of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), required laying down a 15 km-long pipeline and 60 km of electrical cables.
Some tips for Sewage Treatment Plants in apartment complexes
- Sewage Treatment Plants with an automated system is usually recommended for residential colonies since there are chances of human negligence in the management of manual systems. This refers to the dry running of pumps or the ineffective timely start of pumps which can result in machinery breakdown or overflow of sludge.
- A completely sealed package unit is advised for installation of STPs in small residential units.
- Sewage compartments or chambers, which contain methane gas, should be located away from car parking area or areas that can cause ignition or spark