FSI In India's Top 10 Cities
The Floor Space Index (FSI) is a parameter that is important is ensuring proper construction. It is also referred as the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) which is the ratio of the total area of a building to the area of the plot on which it is built. The FSI is determined by a city’s municipal corporation or the development authority as per the Development Control Regulations (DCR). Thus, the index may vary from city to city. The Directorate of Town and Country Planning (DTCP) department is responsible for regulating the FSI values. In most cities in India, FSI values are lower compared to other cities of the world.
MakaanIQ tells you the Floor Space Index (FSI) in the ten major cities in India:
The need to increase Floor Space Index (FSI)
If the FSI for a city is set at 2 and the total area of land is 2,000 sqft then the total permissible coverage area (built-up area) for a structure will be 2 X 2,000 sqft. This means a developer can construct a building with a total floor space of 4,000 sqft. FSI serves as a Development Control Tool which is used to keep a check on the dynamic growth patterns of cities mostly in metros. Many cities have a policy to increase the FSI over a certain period to accommodate the rising space requirements. This way residential and commercial establishments can continue to utilize more space instead of moving to newer areas for expansion.
Vertical construction is rampant and development authorities, like in Mumbai, are reluctant to increase the FSI citing rise in congestion. Also, many experts recommend diversifying the concept of FSI with inclusion of infrastructure as a key factor, say retail, offices and recreational spaces. Increasing the FSI will curb the city’s expansion to the peripheries and curb transportation costs. It will also result in decrease in property prices owing to availability of more housing units. The government contemplates increasing FSI to meet the demand for affordable homes, under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY), which is at an all-time high now. Recently, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has decided to form a committee to consider higher FSI for cities.
City planners establish the regulated FSI at a slightly higher level than the FSI of existing buildings which enables redevelopment of older buildings. Often, authorities use FSI as an incentive for organized development of dilapidated structures. For instance, in central Mumbai, an FSI value of four has been allowed for all integrated development projects.
In the national capital, the FSI is between 1.2 and 3.5, as per the Delhi Master Plan 2021. There is no FAR restriction on group housing while plots in the influence zones and Metro corridors are allowed a higher FSI. redevelopment projects are granted an FSI value of 4.
The permissible FSI in the main island city has increased from 1.33 to 1.83. FSI in the suburbs is between 0.5 and 1. The DCR Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai allows an FSI of 2.5 for development of land parcels under MHADA and 2.5 plus incentives for redevelopment works. The Maharashtra government has recently approved an additional 0.5 FSI on payment of a premium.
As per the New Town Kolkata Building Rules, 2009, the range of FSI for residential structures in Kolkata is between 1.5 and 2.5. The limit is set depending on the land use, road width, density, etc.
Development of residential buildings in Chennai, under Chennai Second Masterplan 2026, must conform to the FSI limit of 1.5 for ordinary residential buildings and 2 for high rise buildings.
The FSI in the central localities of Ahmedabad is 1.2 while it goes up to 1.8 for localities in the suburbs. The FAR in Ahmedabad is much lower compared to other cities of the country.
The ‘Silicon Valley of India’ is divided into three zones viz. the intensely developed, moderately developed and sparsely developed for allocation of FSI. As per the Bangalore Revised Master Plan 2015, the FSI varies from 1.75 for smaller plots to 3.35 for larger plots, with consideration of factors like area, building activity, plot size and road width. There are regulations for integrated townships as well, with 40 per cent designated for residential use and rest for IT/BT related areas with FSI ranging between 2.5 and 3.25 based on road width.
Hyderabad has not put FSI restrictions that has indirectly controlled the property prices to skyrocket. The municipal administration and urban development (MA&UD) department is however considering reintroduction of floor space index (FSI) norm for high-rise buildings in Telangana.
The permissible floor area ratio in Gurgaon ranges between 1 and 1.45, as per the official website of Haryana Urban Development Authority. The maximum value of FAR for industrial setups is kept at 1.25. Construction of public buildings also conform to an FSI of 1.5.
For Noida and Greater Noida which witnessed high housing demand, the value of FSI is set between 2.75 and 3.5, group housing project are allowed an FAR of 2.75. The industrial buildings are allowed a maximum FAR of 1.5 while commercial buildings have a maximum FAR of 4, depending on building height and ground coverage.
Pune allows an FSI between 1.5 and 2.5, depending on various factors, as per the Draft Development Control Regulations for Development Plan Pune. A high FAR of 5.5 is allowed for slum redevelopment projects.